​12. Cranes, travelling overhead cranes, hoist, skylifts, lifting tables, trucks and scaffolding

Cranes, overhead travelling cranes, hoist, lifing tables and trucks may only be operated by people who have both written permission from the Avesta Steelworks' supervision team in question and a valid operator's licence for the operations in question. The operator must be able to produce the personal written permission at all times.

Lifting-devices, apparatus, travelling cranes and cranes

It is forbidden to use the company’s lifting devices and apparatus e.g. strops, wires, chains or grippers, without permission and instructions from Avesta Works.

Travelling cranes and hoists may only be driven by personnel who have attended Avesta Works’ crane driver training course or equivalent training course in accordance with SS-ISO 9926-1, SS-ISO 9928-1, SS-ISO 12480-1 and SS-ISO 15513, in addition permission to drive must be given by Avesta Works.

Driving a travelling crane demands the operator’s full attention, therefore it is forbidden to use mobile phones when operating a crane.

Entering and exiting cranes is only allowed, if the crane driver has been informed and the crane is stationary.

Work on cranes or crane runways may only be carried out if appropriate safety measures have been taken. Examples of these are Disconnect and Lock, the fitting of breaking equipment, cordoning off the area, work platforms, signalmen, safety harnesses etc as well as informing relevant personnel including the crane driver.

In cases where scaffolding must be erected against a crane, it must be inspected by an accredited inspection authority before being used.

When planning longer stops a local coordination plan must be drawn up. The plan covers questions of liability, risk analyses as well as the possible need for crane guards. The analyses should be the foundation on which assessments and decisions regarding necessary security and safety measure are based.

Even in other cases, e.g. inspections, fault detection work, risk prevention meetings, in various forms, play an important role. The provision of information to crane drivers and other members of staff who are affected is an important feature.

Work on cranes and crane runways may be carried out without a signalman on the floor/ground, if the area below the workplace is cordoned off in a clear and safe manner. In all other cases a signalman (security guard) must be in place.

Breaking equipment which is attached to the runways must be marked out using long hanging plastic tape. All those affected must be informed that the obstruction is in place.

On completing work on cranes and crane runways all lose objects must be removed, e.g. tools, spare parts working materials etc. Equally important is that the workplace is cleaned properly afterwards.

 

Work above the floor- or ground level

It is vitally important that work done high above the ground is carried out as safely as possible, as falls from high up often lead to serious personal injury, see Arbetsmiljöverkets (Swedish Work Environment Authority) regulations “1981:14, Skydd mot skada genom fall”(Protection from injury caused by falling) . In order to avoid injuries, work may not, in principal, be carried out at different heights above the ground in the same area simultaneously. If despite this recommendation, such work can not be avoided, coordination measures must be employed by the relevant work teams. The coordination measures must encompass risk analyses and necessary measures for eliminating risks as well as liability issues. If the working height is greater that 2 metres safety harnesses must be worn if there is no guard rail in place. In addition, when working high up tools and other loose objects must be handled and stored in such a way that prevents them from falling. When working above footpaths or above places where people or vehicles are present, specially trained and equipped signalmen must be in place.

Scaffolding

Scaffolding must be used when working high above ground. Rules regarding this can be found in Swedish Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverkets) regulations AFS 1990:12 Scaffolding, with amendments and supplements in AFS 2004:4 Scaffolding, see crane section above. Before erecting, using or dismantling scaffolding, contractors must have a plan for the operation in question. Before a scaffold is erected a “start up” meeting must be held. The meeting should be documented via the coordination plan. At this meeting the contractor and a representative from the affected department shall go through the work from the perspective of needs and risks. As scaffolding is often erected by one company, but used by another or several other companies it is essential for representatives from these companies to attend the “start-up meeting”. Scaffolding, stairways and similar constructions must not be erected in places where there is a risk of vehicles running into them. Note that this even applies to the working area around cranes!

Mobile cranes (Skylift, lifting tables etc)

The use of this type of equipment is only permitted when there is a/or several reasons why scaffolding cannot be erected e.g. due to the insufficient room. Contractors must be able to produce a valid inspection certificate for all equipment that requires such documentation. It is the contractor’s responsibility to make sure that their employees have the required qualifications and that they can produce proof of this. When working from skylifts, lifting tables and similar equipment a safety harness must always be used. This should be anchored to the basket/platform or to a more substantial section of the structure if this is more appropriate.

Ladders

Whenever possible, avoid the use of ladders. The use of ladders is only permitted if there is absolutely no other solution. Conventional ladders over 5 m must be anchored and / or braced. In addition ladders must be equipped with suitable anti-slipping devices and be intact and undamaged.

Ladders must not be used if:

  • you are going to handle something with both hands (larger drills, bolt gun or similar)
  • you are going to do something that requires that you use considerable force
  • you are going to do a job that will take a long time to complete
  • the floor/ground is such that you cannot use a ladder safely , e.g. wet floor, different levels of uneven surface

Working alone from ladders that are not anchored or braced is not allowed.

Collisions

There must be enough clearance between the scaffolding, all its components, and adjacent activities as well as the working areas around the cranes affected. The same demands apply to mobile cranes. Note that there can be more than one travelling crane operating on the crane runway. Consideration must be given to possible pedestrian and vehicle traffic in the vicinity. The surrounding area and/or crane runway should be cordoned off if necessary. Review the possible need for a signalman.

Electricity

Investigate the risk of inadvertent contact with the cranes electrical supply system,( when uninsulated cables occur). Note that different systems can be employed on the same runway, this means that disconnect & lock might be carried out at different locations.

Information

Inform the travelling crane-, truck driver and the rest of the staff that work is going to be carried out. Remember to convey the information about the work in progress to the next work gang at, for example, a shift change.

Read the next chapter: 13. Environmental requirements, tidiness and cleanliness